Glands & Hormones A-Z

The endocrine system is a series of glands that produce and secrete hormones that the body uses for a wide range of functions in an effort to keep your body in balance.


Adrenal Glands

The adrenal gland produces androgen and cortisol. It helps to control blood sugar and much more. The hormones produced by this gland affect many aspects of genetics and its role in the endocrine system.



Adrenaline is a hormone released into the body of someone feeling extreme emotions, which causes the person to have more energy. 



Aldosterone plays an important role in cardiovascular health and can be a cause of endocrine hypertension. 



Angiotensin is a common name for four hormones and play an important role in blood pressure regulation. 



Calcitonin is one of the most critical hormones, controlling calcium and potassium levels. 



Cholecystokinin is most recognized for improving digestion. 



Cortisol is a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it all round the body. Almost every cell contains receptors for cortisol and so cortisol can have lots of different actions depending on which sort of cells it is acting upon. These effects include controlling the body’s blood sugar levels and thus regulating metabolism, acting as an anti-inflammatory, influencing memory formation, controlling salt and water balance, and influencing blood pressure. In many species cortisol is also responsible for triggering the processes involved in giving birth.


Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an important precursor hormone. It has little biological effect on its own but has powerful effects when converted into other hormones used for reproduction. 



Dihydrotestosterone is a hormone that stimulates the development of male characteristics. The amount of dihydrotestosterone present in the body from day to day depends on the amount of testosterone present. 



Erythropoietin support the production of red blood cells.



Estradiol is the strongest of the three estrogens and an important player in the female reproductive system and the most common type for women of childbearing age. 



Estrogen is one of two main sex hormones that women have. 



Estrone is one of the three types of estrogens and the only estrogen that your body makes after menopause. 



Gastrin is directly responsible for the release of gastric acid, which breaks down the proteins in the food you eat. 



Ghrelin is an important digestive hormone that controls appetite. 



Glucagon, a peptide hormone, is produced by the pancreas to regulate glucose in the bloodstream. 


Glucagon Like Peptide 1

Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone produced in the small intestine that stimulates insulin production and prevents glucagon production, thereby lowering blood sugar. 


Growth Hormone

Growth hormone (GH) is a substance that controls your body’s growth. Learn how this hormone affects many aspects of your health and how to keep it in balance. Growth hormone (GH) is a substance that controls your body’s growth. 


Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone HcG

Ever wonder how are at-home pregnancy tests able to detect if you are pregnant? The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HcG) hormone is important in the early stages of pregnancy. 



The hypothalamus is in control of pituitary hormones. 



The hormone insulin is essential for life, regulates many metabolic processes that provide cells with needed energy. 



Kisspeptin is made in the hypothalamus, is an important hormone that starts the release of several other hormones. 



Leptin is a hormone that is crucial to appetite and weight control. 


Luteinizing Hormone LH

Luteinizing hormone (LH) controls male and female reproductive systems. 



Melatonin is a hormone that regulates our sleep and wake cycle and is sometimes used as a supplement. 



The ovaries play an important role in female reproduction and development. 



Oxytocin is a hormone crucial for childbirth and labor, breastfeeding, and social behaviors and bonding. 



The main function of the pancreas is to maintain healthy blood sugar levels. 



The parathyroid is important in bone development. 


Parathyroid Hormone

The parathyroid hormone affects your calcium levels in the bones, intestines and kidneys. 


Peptide YY

How is your body able to recognize when you have eaten enough food? After eating, the hormone peptide YY (PYY) is produced by the small intestine and released into your bloodstream. 


Pineal Gland

The pineal gland and its importance for your sleep cycle. 


Pituitary Gland

Find out why the pituitary gland is vital to your overall well-being. 



Progesterone is a female hormone that regulates the menstrual cycle and is crucial for pregnancy. 



Prolactin, or luteotropin, is the hormone that helps mammals produce milk. 



Prostaglandins are lipids that aid in recovery at sites of tissue damage or infection. 



When a woman is ready to deliver a baby her body produces the hormone relaxin. 



Have you ever wondered what hormone is responsible for your mood and feelings? Serotonin is the key hormone that stabilizes our mood, feelings of well-being, and happiness. 



Somatostatin is also called SS, SST or SOM. This growth hormone inhibitory hormone affects several areas of the body by hindering the secretion of other hormones. 



The testes play an important role in male development. 



Testosterone is an important male sex hormone. 



Thymus plays an important role during puberty. 



The thyroid gland controls a person’s metabolism and the hormones it releases governs many functions in the body. 


Thyroid Hormones

The thyroid gland releases triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play an important role in regulation of your weight, energy levels, internal temperature, skin, hair, nail growth, and more. 



Thyroxine aids in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development, and bone maintenance. 


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a hormone that promotes calcium absorption and bone growth.